- ItemOpen AccessΑποτελεσματικότητα των αντι-COVID-19 εμβολίων : μια μικρή επισκόπηση των δεδομένων αποκαλύπτει την αδυναμία τους να αποτρέψουν τη βαριά νόσο και τον θάνατο(Αυτοέκδοση, )Το άρθρο γνώμης πραγματεύεται την αναποτελεσματικότητα των εμβολίων ενάντια στον κορονοϊό και τους κίνδυνους από αυτόν.
- ItemOpen AccessΗ ΠΟΡΕΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΠΑΝΔΗΜΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΩΝ ΕΜΒΟΛΙΑΣΜΩΝ(ΑΥΤΟΕΚΔΟΣΗ, )-
- ItemOpen Access
- ItemRestrictedFirst report of reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load after nasopharyngeal wash with hypertonic water(-, )Importance: SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread mainly through airborne transmission and colonizes the human upper respiratory tract. It causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has major therapeutic challenges as there are no treatments to prevent the infection from spreading or the development of the disease in a severe form. Objective: COVID-19 is diagnosed through identification of viral genetic material from nasopharyngeal swabs using PCR. The quantification of viral RNA using the cycle threshold (Ct) values is of great diagnostic importance. Nasal wash with saline or hypertonic saline is very important for the hygiene of the nose and sinuses. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of an intense nasal wash on the viral load in patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design: A case-control study investigating the association of a nasopharyngeal wash and viral load in adult patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were hospitalized was performed. All patients were treated with the standard protocol of care for COVID-19. Group A (n = 20) patients were each provided with a 25 mL bottle of hypertonic solution for a nasopharyngeal wash to be performed for 20–30 s, thrice within 6 h. Group B (n = 5) patients served as negative controls (no intervention). Nasal swabs were taken before and after the 6-h period by the same doctor and RT-PCR followed. Results: There was a 23.6% (median value) and 17.3% (mean value) reduction in the viral load after nasopharyngeal washing. On the other hand, Ct values remained practically stable for the negative control patients within the same 6-h period. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which demonstrates the potential effect of hypertonic water on the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Further randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm the effects of hypertonic water on the prevention and clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.
- ItemOpen AccessNicotinic cholinergic system and COVID-19 : identification of a potentially crucial snake toxin-like sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.(-, )Smoking is a risk factor for respiratory infections and there is reasonable concern that it may affect COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Recent studies have focused on the interaction between smoking (and nicotine) and ACE2 expression, suggesting that ACE2 up-regulation could contribute to enhanced viral cell entry. However, case series have shown that there is an unexpectedly low prevalence of smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 cases. Since early April, we were the first to hypothesize that dysfunction of the nicotinic cholinergic system (NCS) may be implicated in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 and that nicotine intake could have beneficial effects. We recently reported that many of the clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 could be explained by dysregulation of the NCS. In this study, we present an amino acid sequence in the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein which is homologous to a sequence of the Neurotoxin homolog NL1, one of the snake venom toxins that are known to interact with acetylcholine receptors. We present the 3D structural location of this “toxin-like” sequence on the Spike Glycoprotein and the superposition of the modelled structure of the Neurotoxin homolog NL1 and the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could potentially interact with acetylcholine receptors causing dysregulation of the NCS and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Such interactions may lead to uncontrolled immune response and cytokine storm, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19.