Distributed processing techniques for parameter estimation and efficient data-gathering in wireless communication and sensor networks

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Bogdanovic, Nikola
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This dissertation deals with the distributed processing techniques for parameter estimation and efficient data-gathering in wireless communication and sensor networks. With the aim of enabling an energy aware and low-complexity distributed implementation of the estimation task, several useful optimization techniques that generally yield linear estimators were derived in the literature. Up to now, most of the works considered that the nodes are interested in estimating the same vector of global parameters. This scenario can be viewed as a special case of a more general problem where the nodes of the network have overlapped but different estimation interests. Motivated by this fact, this dissertation states a new Node-Specific Parameter Estimation (NSPE) formulation where the nodes are interested in estimating parameters of local, common and/or global interest. We consider a setting where the NSPE interests are partially overlapping, while the non-overlapping parts can be arbitrarily different. This setting can model several applications, e.g., cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks, power system state estimation in smart grids etc. Unsurprisingly, the effectiveness of any distributed adaptive implementation is dependent on the ways cooperation is established at the network level, as well as the processing strategies considered at the node level. At the network level, this dissertation is concerned with the incremental and diffusion cooperation schemes in the NSPE settings. Under the incremental mode, each node communicates with only one neighbor, and the data are processed in a cyclic manner throughout the network at each time instant. On the other hand, in the diffusion mode at each time step each node of the network cooperates with a set of neighboring nodes. Based on Least-Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least-Squares (RLS) learning rules employed at the node level, we derive novel distributed estimation algorithms that undertake distinct but coupled optimization processes in order to obtain adaptive solutions of the considered NSPE setting. The detailed analyses of the mean convergence and the steady-state mean-square performance have been provided. Finally, different performance gains have been illustrated in the context of cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. Another fundamental problem that has been considered in this dissertation is the data-gathering problem, sometimes also named as the sensor reachback, that arises in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In particular, the problem is related to the transmission of the acquired observations to a data-collecting node, often termed to as sink node, which has increased processing capabilities and more available power as compared to the other nodes. Here, we focus on WSNs deployed for structural health monitoring. In general, there are several difficulties in the sensor reachback problem arising in such a network. Firstly, the amount of data generated by the sensor nodes may be immense, due to the fact that structural monitoring applications need to transfer relatively large amounts of dynamic response measurement data. Furthermore, the assumption that all sensors have direct, line-of-sight link to the sink does not hold in the case of these structures. To reduce the amount of data required to be transmitted to the sink node, the correlation among measurements of neighboring nodes can be exploited. A possible approach to exploit spatial data correlation is Distributed Source Coding (DSC). A DSC technique may achieve lossless compression of multiple correlated sensor outputs without establishing any communication links between the nodes. Other approaches employ lossy techniques by taking advantage of the temporal correlations in the data and/or suitable stochastic modeling of the underlying processes. In this dissertation, we present a channel-aware lossless extension of sequential decoding based on cooperation between the nodes. Next, we also present a cooperative communication protocol based on adaptive spatio-temporal prediction. As a more practical approach, it allows a lossy reconstruction of transmitted data, while offering considerable energy savings in terms of transmissions toward the sink.
Adaptive distributed networks, Node-specific parameter estimation, Distributed processing, Incremental, Diffusion, Cooperation