Using psychometrics in human resource management in tourist accommodation : employees' predisposition for organizational turnover

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Τσαούσογλου, Κλεοπάτρα

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Abstract

Tourism is highly important for the Greek economy. The tourism product consists mostly of services, something that highlights the crucial role of human factor in the tourism context. Employee turnover rates in tourism industry are considerably high globally, and the same applies to Greece. The main focus of literature, in terms of employee turnover, is based on environmental and situational reasons. In an effort to focus on reasons for employee turnover that are connected with individuals themselves and not with environmental and working conditions, the current dissertation investigates the causal relationship of personality and commitment with intention to leave an organization. More specifically the dissertation focuses on employees of the Greek accommodation sector, as this industry represents almost half of total tourism revenues. Taking into consideration that upon selection of new employees, the employee turnover process is possible to start, we focused on structured selection methods that could support selection process and improve selection decisions in terms of turnover. Thus, we focus on psychometric assessments which, according to corresponding literature, represent the most direct and cost-effective way to reduce turnover in a pre-entry stage. Psychometrics can pinpoint an applicant’s predisposition based on numbers and measures and not on subjective estimations, as is the case with unstructured interviews, which are the most commonly used selection methods. The aim of this dissertation is to evaluate personality and the work attitude of commitment as these features according to theory can affect behavior. As in corresponding literature the disposition of turnover behavior has rarely been examined, it was examined if personality can be an antecedent of turnover. In addition, as commitment is inextricably related with turnover, it has been examined if commitment has a dispositional aspect, as well. Finally, as research on commitment in terms of turnover has mostly focused on organizational commitment, the role of a different foci of commitment (occupational commitment) on turnover was examined in the context of hospitality, where evidence on the topic is scarce. Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), emotional stability, organizational commitment, and occupational commitment were found to be predictors of intention to leave organization. In addition, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were found to be strongly related with organizational commitment. An additional impact of intention to leave occupation on prediction of organizational commitment has also been observed. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed as well.

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Employee turnover, Hospitality, Personality traits, Human resource management, Recruitment, Organizational commitment, Occupational commitment, Hotels, Lodging industry

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